Friday, June 24, 2011

What is a Wi-Fi Router and how Wi-Fi works


Wi-Fi is a wireless networking protocol, where in the devices communicate without the use of cables or cords. The name Wi-Fi is often quoted as acronym for wireless fidelity but is derived from the word Hi-Fi( High Fidelity). The latter was the term coined by audiophiles to refer to all kinds of expensive audio equipments that produced the least amount of distortion in sounds.

Wi-Fi works using radio frequency technology. Nowadays most of the devices come with built in Wi-Fi devices like laptop, mobile phones etc. In absence of the built-in device user could use a Wi-Fi adapter.

Depending on the network Wi-Fi could be termed as closed network or an open network. For a closed network, a user requires certain specifications like password and user details to access the network. Area covered under Wi-Fi is termed as wireless hotspot.

How Wi-Fi works?

As previously mentioned Wi-Fi works using radio waves which spreads the Wi-Fi Internet network. These signals are spread via radio waves which are picked up by the Wi-Fi devices. If your laptop or the computer doesn’t have built in Wi-Fi device then you can attach Wi-Fi adapter to your system. Wi-Fi adapter in the computer converts the data into radio signal and then broadcasts it using attached antennae. When the router picks up and decodes it then internet connection is established which can be accessed with your device.

To access the Internet a Wi-Fi device needs to be within the given range which is about 300-600 feet or within the wireless hotspot.

If the any two product are termed as “Wi-Fi certified” then these products can operate with each other and exchange regardless of the fact if they are from different manufacturers.

Wi-Fi operates at frequency of 2.4Ghz and many devices in the market nowadays support it like mobile phone, PDA and laptops,. .

Security Concerns

If not protected, Internet using Wi-Fi can be used in an unauthorized manner. The unauthorized users can exploit Intranet for their own use or for any malicious activity. It is better to implement security procedures like Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and other encryption techniques to prevent such unauthorized use.

Intranet

Intranet is an internal private network usually employed by organizations which uses TCP/IP protocol for networking. Organizations generally use Intranet for their daily working, Intranet operates on LAN and the computers connected via Intranet can’t be accessed from outside.

Intranet works with almost Internet like functionality with private e-mail systems and message boards. Many advanced Intranet systems have websites, newsgroups, forums and large databases which are required for the company’s business. Intranet which resides behind firewall protects any unauthorized access.

If an organization wishes to give controlled access to someone outside it might use Extranet for that purpose. Extranet are the extension of the private networks for sharing limited resources with clients and other organizations.

For computers in an organization to be connected via Intranet, it is not at all necessary for them to be connected to the Internet.

Advantages of the Intranet

As mentioned before there are organizations around the world which use private Intranet as it helps them to enhance their productivity, as it allows the employees to access any information and communicate anytime.

Since the information is readily available it saves them lot of time. Intranet can also be linked to company’s management information system. The MIS systems inside the company are designed for simplification of the company’s accounting and resource management policies. These systems facilitate the flow of information to and from all the levels in the company.

Many departments in various organizations like human resources, sales, accounting etc use Intranet to coordinate work and various processes with other departments.

What is a Router and how it works

Router, which facilitates the transfer of data in the form of packets, is a device connecting two or more networks. Routers can be used to send the data either within the same network or to different networks.


The data packets which are sent over a network are directed on basis of their address. Each packet contains a header which can be used to determine the destination address and the source.

When the packet is sent over the network it is transferred from one network to other. When internet is installed in homes, a router routes the information that is received through your broadband Internet via modem, then decodes it and finally delivers it to your desktop.

When the packet arrives at the router, information contained in its header is scrutinized and based on this scrutiny the packet is forwarded to its destination. Routers also use protocols like ICMP (Internet Message control Protocol) to exchange information and try to figure out best possible route for information packet transfer in terms of cost and time.

Routers can even be used at home if a user wants to connect more than one computer with a single network (Internet connection).

Types of Router:

  • Cable Router – Cable routers are commonly used where a user has subscribed to high-speed cable Internet. While the modem is plugged into the wall socket from which the user also receives the cable TV signal, cable router is connected to the modem, which sends the signal to home computers.
  • Wireless Router – A wireless router can be used to connect to Internet or a personal network. Nowadays many companies manufacturing router provide it with built in devices thus eliminating the needs for extra devices. Routers which use the Wi-Fi methodology also connect with other wireless devices like NIC (Network Interface cards) and wireless repeaters.
  • Multicast Router – Multicast routers are brought to use when it is desired that multiple users should receive a single data packet. Depending upon number of users and the bandwidth available, multicast routers, either uses dense mode routing or sparse mode routing. Both the networks make use of multicast datagram’s which are sent to the routers and hence include a larger number of receivers over sources.

What is a Router and how it works

Router, which facilitates the transfer of data in the form of packets, is a device connecting two or more networks. Routers can be used to send the data either within the same network or to different networks.


The data packets which are sent over a network are directed on basis of their address. Each packet contains a header which can be used to determine the destination address and the source.

When the packet is sent over the network it is transferred from one network to other. When internet is installed in homes, a router routes the information that is received through your broadband Internet via modem, then decodes it and finally delivers it to your desktop.

When the packet arrives at the router, information contained in its header is scrutinized and based on this scrutiny the packet is forwarded to its destination. Routers also use protocols like ICMP (Internet Message control Protocol) to exchange information and try to figure out best possible route for information packet transfer in terms of cost and time.

Routers can even be used at home if a user wants to connect more than one computer with a single network (Internet connection).

Types of Router:

  • Cable Router – Cable routers are commonly used where a user has subscribed to high-speed cable Internet. While the modem is plugged into the wall socket from which the user also receives the cable TV signal, cable router is connected to the modem, which sends the signal to home computers.
  • Wireless Router – A wireless router can be used to connect to Internet or a personal network. Nowadays many companies manufacturing router provide it with built in devices thus eliminating the needs for extra devices. Routers which use the Wi-Fi methodology also connect with other wireless devices like NIC (Network Interface cards) and wireless repeaters.
  • Multicast Router – Multicast routers are brought to use when it is desired that multiple users should receive a single data packet. Depending upon number of users and the bandwidth available, multicast routers, either uses dense mode routing or sparse mode routing. Both the networks make use of multicast datagram’s which are sent to the routers and hence include a larger number of receivers over sources.

Modem


Introduction
Modem is short for modulator-demodulator. Modems are required so that various computers can communicate with each other over a network. They convert the analog signals, which a computer receives over a telephone or cable television line into the digital signals.

When the use of Modem began in 1970’s most of them were used to connect computers to a Bulletin Board Systems (BBS). Initially 300 BAUD Modems were used which could transmit 30 characters per second. But nowadays modems available in the market transfer the data at a much faster rate thus allowing you to download huge amounts within few minutes

Types of Modem

  • Dial-up Modems- These modems were widely used in the late 1990’s. Dial-up modems used standard telephone line to connect to the Internet Service Provider (ISP). When developed these modems had the data transfer capability of 56 Kbps but the major drawback of using the dial-up technology was that a user couldn’t use telephone line while using the Internet.
  • Cable Modems – These types of modems allow computer systems and networks to communicate over the cable television infrastructure networks. These networks use co-axial cable media to communicate. Cable modems are generally used for broadband based Internet access.
  • Wireless Modems – Wireless modem is a network device which connects to wireless network. It attaches directly to your notebook or a computer. Wireless modem interfaces include Compact Flash, USB and Serial Port.
  • Voice Modems- Voice modems are just like standard modems that are capable of recording or playing audio over the telephone line. They are used for telephony applications.
  • ADSL/DSL Modems – ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital subscriber line. However unlike dial up one can receive and make phone calls while simultaneously using the Internet. The reason why this is termed as asymmetric is because while using the ADSL modems user has much higher download speeds as compared to the upload speed.
On the other hand DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) modems give equal speed while both downloading and uploading the content on the Internet.
Modem

Introduction

Modem is short for modulator-demodulator. Modems are required so that various computers can communicate with each other over a network. They convert the analog signals, which a computer receives over a telephone or cable television line into the digital signals.

When the use of Modem began in 1970’s most of them were used to connect computers to a Bulletin Board Systems (BBS). Initially 300 BAUD Modems were used which could transmit 30 characters per second. But nowadays modems available in the market transfer the data at a much faster rate thus allowing you to download huge amounts within few minutes

Types of Modem

Dial-up Modems- These modems were widely used in the late 1990’s. Dial-up modems used standard telephone line to connect to the Internet Service Provider (ISP). When developed these modems had the data transfer capability of 56 Kbps but the major drawback of using the dial-up technology was that a user couldn’t use telephone line while using the Internet.
Cable Modems – These types of modems allow computer systems and networks to communicate over the cable television infrastructure networks. These networks use co-axial cable media to communicate. Cable modems are generally used for broadband based Internet access.
Wireless Modems – Wireless modem is a network device which connects to wireless network. It attaches directly to your notebook or a computer. Wireless modem interfaces include Compact Flash, USB and Serial Port.
Voice Modems- Voice modems are just like standard modems that are capable of recording or playing audio over the telephone line. They are used for telephony applications.
ADSL/DSL Modems – ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital subscriber line. However unlike dial up one can receive and make phone calls while simultaneously using the Internet. The reason why this is termed as asymmetric is because while using the ADSL modems user has much higher download speeds as compared to the upload speed.

On the other hand DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) modems give equal speed while both downloading and uploading the content on the Internet.

What is Ethernet


Ethernet is a computer networking technology primarily used for Local Area Network (LAN). It was invented by Robert Metcalfe in 1970’s while he worked at Xerox.

In LAN architecture you have, two or more computers connected with each other and sharing resources such as Internet, fax, scanners etc. Each computer or a workstation has a NIC (Network Interface card). This NIC is connected to Ethernet cable which in turn is connected to the central hub or a Local server, which directs all the communication processes and enables sharing of resources.

Initially Ethernet used twisted pair or co-axial cables to connect to the Internet or a network. CSMA/CD (carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection) technology was used to transmit the data and it employed the use of co-axial cable for this transmission. But nowadays Ethernet uses full duplex transmission via twisted copper cables or fiber optical cables.

Ethernet is the most popular LAN protocol and has evolved over the period of time. When invented its data transmission capability was few Mbps like 10 Mbps but now we have Ethernet cables with data transmission capability of over 1000Mbps or it is called as Gigabit Ethernet. In fact Ethernet cables with capability of 10Gbps have now been introduced. The length of the cable used may vary depending upon the usage. It may be few meters in length or might spread over entire school and universities campuses.

The formal standardization of Ethernet by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) is known as IEEE 802.3

Ethernet Cable

Though we have been seeing increase in wireless network platform but still Ethernet is a faster, reliable and secure source of internet connectivity.

Computer Networking Solutions



We make your network run flawlessly
In today’s world, networking determines the functioning of so many companies because data transfer is completely facilitated through this feature. Companies focus so much on computer networking solutions so that the productivity of their employees and computers is maximized. Many types network exist in companies these days. These types include mesh, star, ring and bus. The kind of network employed by a company depends on the scale of the organization and the extent of the data transfer required. Ethernet and LAN which are varied types of computer networks also differ in their data transfer methods. Ethernet uses wire for data transfer whereas LAN does not make use of wires for connecting computers in the computer network. .


Companies generally use LAN as the computer network inside their companies as it is more attuned to their requirements. WAN is more suited for data transfer in cities.


What is a computer network?
A computer network system includes hardware and software for its systematic functioning. Apart from easy data transfer, such network sharing of devices also enables remote operation of any machine. This implies that in the absence of any employee, data from his machine can be retrieved by another employee in a computer network system.

Since its important for companies to see that their computer networking solutions continue to function without any kind of disruption, they require regular help in attachment of new devices and remove any disruption by viruses. Most of the times these computer networking solutions work with operating systems, which have been specifically configured for their easier control. Many multinational corporations now employ such computer networking solutions so that that data transfer takes place smoothly inside the organization. Main advantages of such computer networking solutions are:
  • The computer network has a centralized location of data which ensures security as its accumulated in databases
  • Data sharing exists in the computer network which reduces time spent in transfer of data
  • Faster processing of applications through a client server model in the computer network
  • Easier data recovery in the computer network since its stored on so many computers in a network
  • Cheaper business communication in the computer network because mails are sent through outlook express rather than faxed.
Another advantage of a computer network system is that it also saves on operational costs. When a network is sharing the same printer, the computers of that network don’t have to spend on other printers.
We Complete PC Pedia make sure that once you browse through our website, getting help for any kind of errors related to computer networking solutions is quite simple. So, apart from the incredible help for the errors of the computer network, we have also suggested ways through which you can optimize the working of your computer network system.

The categorization of computer networking solutions is also varied as per the sharing of information. The client-server design of the computer network implies that all the data is stored in a centralized server. This data in a computer network system includes web pages, emails and all the applications which are important for running the functions of an office. On the other hand, the peer to peer computer network system has all the computers at

Computer Networking Solutions



We make your network run flawlessly
In today’s world, networking determines the functioning of so many companies because data transfer is completely facilitated through this feature. Companies focus so much on computer networking solutions so that the productivity of their employees and computers is maximized. Many types network exist in companies these days. These types include mesh, star, ring and bus. The kind of network employed by a company depends on the scale of the organization and the extent of the data transfer required. Ethernet and LAN which are varied types of computer networks also differ in their data transfer methods. Ethernet uses wire for data transfer whereas LAN does not make use of wires for connecting computers in the computer network. .


Companies generally use LAN as the computer network inside their companies as it is more attuned to their requirements. WAN is more suited for data transfer in cities.


What is a computer network?
A computer network system includes hardware and software for its systematic functioning. Apart from easy data transfer, such network sharing of devices also enables remote operation of any machine. This implies that in the absence of any employee, data from his machine can be retrieved by another employee in a computer network system.

Since its important for companies to see that their computer networking solutions continue to function without any kind of disruption, they require regular help in attachment of new devices and remove any disruption by viruses. Most of the times these computer networking solutions work with operating systems, which have been specifically configured for their easier control. Many multinational corporations now employ such computer networking solutions so that that data transfer takes place smoothly inside the organization. Main advantages of such computer networking solutions are:
  • The computer network has a centralized location of data which ensures security as its accumulated in databases
  • Data sharing exists in the computer network which reduces time spent in transfer of data
  • Faster processing of applications through a client server model in the computer network
  • Easier data recovery in the computer network since its stored on so many computers in a network
  • Cheaper business communication in the computer network because mails are sent through outlook express rather than faxed.
Another advantage of a computer network system is that it also saves on operational costs. When a network is sharing the same printer, the computers of that network don’t have to spend on other printers.
We Complete PC Pedia make sure that once you browse through our website, getting help for any kind of errors related to computer networking solutions is quite simple. So, apart from the incredible help for the errors of the computer network, we have also suggested ways through which you can optimize the working of your computer network system.

The categorization of computer networking solutions is also varied as per the sharing of information. The client-server design of the computer network implies that all the data is stored in a centralized server. This data in a computer network system includes web pages, emails and all the applications which are important for running the functions of an office. On the other hand, the peer to peer computer network system has all the computers at

Computer Networking Solutions



We make your network run flawlessly
In today’s world, networking determines the functioning of so many companies because data transfer is completely facilitated through this feature. Companies focus so much on computer networking solutions so that the productivity of their employees and computers is maximized. Many types network exist in companies these days. These types include mesh, star, ring and bus. The kind of network employed by a company depends on the scale of the organization and the extent of the data transfer required. Ethernet and LAN which are varied types of computer networks also differ in their data transfer methods. Ethernet uses wire for data transfer whereas LAN does not make use of wires for connecting computers in the computer network. .


Companies generally use LAN as the computer network inside their companies as it is more attuned to their requirements. WAN is more suited for data transfer in cities.


What is a computer network?
A computer network system includes hardware and software for its systematic functioning. Apart from easy data transfer, such network sharing of devices also enables remote operation of any machine. This implies that in the absence of any employee, data from his machine can be retrieved by another employee in a computer network system.

Since its important for companies to see that their computer networking solutions continue to function without any kind of disruption, they require regular help in attachment of new devices and remove any disruption by viruses. Most of the times these computer networking solutions work with operating systems, which have been specifically configured for their easier control. Many multinational corporations now employ such computer networking solutions so that that data transfer takes place smoothly inside the organization. Main advantages of such computer networking solutions are:
  • The computer network has a centralized location of data which ensures security as its accumulated in databases
  • Data sharing exists in the computer network which reduces time spent in transfer of data
  • Faster processing of applications through a client server model in the computer network
  • Easier data recovery in the computer network since its stored on so many computers in a network
  • Cheaper business communication in the computer network because mails are sent through outlook express rather than faxed.
Another advantage of a computer network system is that it also saves on operational costs. When a network is sharing the same printer, the computers of that network don’t have to spend on other printers.
We Complete PC Pedia make sure that once you browse through our website, getting help for any kind of errors related to computer networking solutions is quite simple. So, apart from the incredible help for the errors of the computer network, we have also suggested ways through which you can optimize the working of your computer network system.

The categorization of computer networking solutions is also varied as per the sharing of information. The client-server design of the computer network implies that all the data is stored in a centralized server. This data in a computer network system includes web pages, emails and all the applications which are important for running the functions of an office. On the other hand, the peer to peer computer network system has all the computers at

How to fix win.exe missing file error


Win.exe is a virus or a Trojan (malware) that creeps into your system via spam e-mails or through certain websites. This virus is extremely harmful for your system as it pulls along many other viruses from the net on to your system or it gets forwarded to other people through forwarded e-mails. This virus can also give an unauthorized access of your computer which may lead to information leak or data theft.

This virus may sit on your system by some file name or at any location which might not get noticed. This virus might go undetected and to remove it, you need a decent antivirus software.

You can remove this virus by the following two ways:-

First Method
  1. Open task manager by pressing CTRL+ ALT+DEL
  2. Click on the Processes
  3. Choose the task running with Win.exe name and then end the process to kill it.
Second Method
  1. Go to Start then click Search
  2. Then click on All files and Folders, there type in win.exe
  3. Infected files appear on your screen, right click on them and press delete.
You can also remove this virus by booting your PC in safe mode. Once you have removed this virus make sure that you have installed good anti-virus software and remember to scan your PC with it and keep updating your anti-virus regularly

How to fix win.exe missing file error


Win.exe is a virus or a Trojan (malware) that creeps into your system via spam e-mails or through certain websites. This virus is extremely harmful for your system as it pulls along many other viruses from the net on to your system or it gets forwarded to other people through forwarded e-mails. This virus can also give an unauthorized access of your computer which may lead to information leak or data theft.

This virus may sit on your system by some file name or at any location which might not get noticed. This virus might go undetected and to remove it, you need a decent antivirus software.

You can remove this virus by the following two ways:-

First Method
  1. Open task manager by pressing CTRL+ ALT+DEL
  2. Click on the Processes
  3. Choose the task running with Win.exe name and then end the process to kill it.
Second Method
  1. Go to Start then click Search
  2. Then click on All files and Folders, there type in win.exe
  3. Infected files appear on your screen, right click on them and press delete.
You can also remove this virus by booting your PC in safe mode. Once you have removed this virus make sure that you have installed good anti-virus software and remember to scan your PC with it and keep updating your anti-virus regularly

How to fix win.exe missing file error


Win.exe is a virus or a Trojan (malware) that creeps into your system via spam e-mails or through certain websites. This virus is extremely harmful for your system as it pulls along many other viruses from the net on to your system or it gets forwarded to other people through forwarded e-mails. This virus can also give an unauthorized access of your computer which may lead to information leak or data theft.

This virus may sit on your system by some file name or at any location which might not get noticed. This virus might go undetected and to remove it, you need a decent antivirus software.

You can remove this virus by the following two ways:-

First Method
  1. Open task manager by pressing CTRL+ ALT+DEL
  2. Click on the Processes
  3. Choose the task running with Win.exe name and then end the process to kill it.
Second Method
  1. Go to Start then click Search
  2. Then click on All files and Folders, there type in win.exe
  3. Infected files appear on your screen, right click on them and press delete.
You can also remove this virus by booting your PC in safe mode. Once you have removed this virus make sure that you have installed good anti-virus software and remember to scan your PC with it and keep updating your anti-virus regularly

System32.dll Error



System32.dll error might occur on your windows based PC due to various reasons. DLL (Dynamic Link Library) files are those files which are shared by a number of applications. These files cannot run directly but are called by other files which are already executing. So if any one Windows DLL file gets corrupt then there could be other program or application dependent on this particular file which might also not work properly.

Now coming back to Windows system32.dll error, this might occur due to particular file being damaged, file being removed or relocated. This error might also occur at the time of system recovery, causing the whole system to shut down abruptly and leaving the user clueless about the error.


How to fix system32.dll error?

The Windows registry can be one of the sources of the .dll errors. You can fix this error by cleaning the registry via registry cleaner.
Download a replacement for system missing system32.dll file from the Internet. In this way you can replace the existing corrupt or broken file with a new one.
If you are facing the system32.dll error with a particular program then the best possible solution would be to reinstall the program.
Restore factory settings- If you are unable to remove this error even after repeated attempts then you can restore your PC to original factory settings. You can switch back to factory settings by following given instructions. Go to “Start” -> ”All Programs” -> “Accessories”-> “System Tools”-> “system Restore”.
Finally make sure that you don’t get any malware or Trojan from internet on your system by installing an anti-malware program.

System32.dll Error



System32.dll error might occur on your windows based PC due to various reasons. DLL (Dynamic Link Library) files are those files which are shared by a number of applications. These files cannot run directly but are called by other files which are already executing. So if any one Windows DLL file gets corrupt then there could be other program or application dependent on this particular file which might also not work properly.

Now coming back to Windows system32.dll error, this might occur due to particular file being damaged, file being removed or relocated. This error might also occur at the time of system recovery, causing the whole system to shut down abruptly and leaving the user clueless about the error.


How to fix system32.dll error?

The Windows registry can be one of the sources of the .dll errors. You can fix this error by cleaning the registry via registry cleaner.
Download a replacement for system missing system32.dll file from the Internet. In this way you can replace the existing corrupt or broken file with a new one.
If you are facing the system32.dll error with a particular program then the best possible solution would be to reinstall the program.
Restore factory settings- If you are unable to remove this error even after repeated attempts then you can restore your PC to original factory settings. You can switch back to factory settings by following given instructions. Go to “Start” -> ”All Programs” -> “Accessories”-> “System Tools”-> “system Restore”.
Finally make sure that you don’t get any malware or Trojan from internet on your system by installing an anti-malware program.

System32.dll Error



System32.dll error might occur on your windows based PC due to various reasons. DLL (Dynamic Link Library) files are those files which are shared by a number of applications. These files cannot run directly but are called by other files which are already executing. So if any one Windows DLL file gets corrupt then there could be other program or application dependent on this particular file which might also not work properly.

Now coming back to Windows system32.dll error, this might occur due to particular file being damaged, file being removed or relocated. This error might also occur at the time of system recovery, causing the whole system to shut down abruptly and leaving the user clueless about the error.


How to fix system32.dll error?

The Windows registry can be one of the sources of the .dll errors. You can fix this error by cleaning the registry via registry cleaner.
Download a replacement for system missing system32.dll file from the Internet. In this way you can replace the existing corrupt or broken file with a new one.
If you are facing the system32.dll error with a particular program then the best possible solution would be to reinstall the program.
Restore factory settings- If you are unable to remove this error even after repeated attempts then you can restore your PC to original factory settings. You can switch back to factory settings by following given instructions. Go to “Start” -> ”All Programs” -> “Accessories”-> “System Tools”-> “system Restore”.
Finally make sure that you don’t get any malware or Trojan from internet on your system by installing an anti-malware program.

Shell32.dll Error


Shell32.dll is a program in Microsoft Windows Shell Program. This file stores Windows shell API (Application Programming Interface) programs which are used by browsers to access the web pages and to access other files.

Shell32.dll error comes pre-installed with your system and is an important component of your operating system. Shell32.dll is a pre-requisite to carry out major tasks in operating system.

The shell32.dll file is located at the address C:\windows\system32\shell32.dll. If there is any such file by this name on any other location on you PC then this is definitely a virus and should be removed.

Various Shell32.dll related errors that can appear on the screen include:
“Shell32.dll not found”
“The file shell32.dll is missing”
“This application failed to start because shell32.dll was not found. Re-installing application may fix this problem”

How to fix Shell32.dll error

  1. Re-install the program - Re-install the program that uses the corrupt Shell file, so that the broken file can be completely replaced.
  2. Scan your computer for viruses – Run a virus scan on your system to remove any malware or spyware present on you hard-disk.
  3. Update your Windows – update your windows from the original source to remove compatibility issues if any
  4. Fix registry keys on your system – Run “RegEdit” i.e. registry editor of Windows, a registry cleaner program to correct broken shell32.dll files.
  5. Use DLL repair software – Use customized DLL repair software by downloading it from the Internet as it clears all the DLL error and other minor glitches which make your PC sluggish

Error

Adobe owl.dll file not found error

Error messages often affect your performance and working speed while operating your computer. These unexpected errors always interrupt you, while you are accomplishing an important project. It may be an Adobeowl.dll error that occurs while installing a new version of software over an 'older' version. Due to this error, you may fail to read needed dll files. This improper installation of a particular application can result to the appearance of popup messages on the screen.

By installing a Windows registry maintenance utility, adobe error can be removed. It will scan your PC and automatically, repair windows problems. With the help of a free PC scan you can quickly detect and clean these errors.

Consequently, it is recommended to download registry cleaning programs from secured websites.

What Causes The Adobeowl.dll Error?

  • A bad installation or un-installation of the programs
  • Corrupted files
  • Virus attack

How To Fix Adobeowl.dll Error?

  • Uninstall the existing application
  • Reinstall the programs or download the specific dll file and correct the error
  • A registry repair toolkit is used to repair a corrupt Windows registry. It will scan your PC, highlighting the troubles
  • Remove the errors and get a clean Window registry
It is recommended to use the repair toolkit regularly, in order to keep your computer free from Adobeowl.dll error. So, within minutes, your computer is scanned thoroughly by this tool and your Adobeowl.dll error fixed.

Registry restore - Is it enough to repair a broken PC?


In the modern century, computers with their huge functionalities are the most needed tools in our lives. Now, broken PC or computer freezing can be caused due to many reasons which include installation of any kind of third party software. The user needs to analyze the issues caused such a broken PC in the first place. With a broken PC, the work of the company ceases to happen for many days.

Major causes of a broken PC are:

Installation of some improper software Any unknown third party softwares sometimes plays with the settings of your computer which can cause a broken PC issue. In case, the set up of software caused such broken PC problems, it's better to remove it for restoring the normal PC performance.

Overheating Sometimes, electrical problems with the PC can also be cause of a broken PC. Another cause of such broken PC situation is the overheating of the computer’s motherboard. When the motherboard is heated due to excessive and extended use of the computer, the computer can’t function normally. When the computer overheats, it’s because the fan present in the PC has some built up dust which makes it function improperly. So, as a result, the computer overheats, every time you use it causing it to crash after some time and this becomes a broken PC situation. Sometimes, the broken PC issue is also caused due to wrong placement of the RAM in the CPU of the PC. Adjusting its position can cause the PC crash. But, if it does not, then it’s better to replace RAM so that further broken PC issue is not caused because of its defective nature.
So, to remove the broken PC problem, just remove this accumulated dust from the computer which was not allowing the fan to function.

Registry faults The registry of the computer may also develop some problems which can cause a broken PC. In such a situation, the user has the simplest option of introducing some modifications in the registry for registry restore. Complete PC Pedia provides you the required registry restore steps so that your PC continues to function perfectly and doesn't cause any more broken PC situations.

Instead of the registry restore, the users can also opt for a disk defragmenter function which again fragments the hard disks of the PC and protects your computer from broken PC situation. Since this registry restore method causes the data in these drives to be stored elsewhere, its better to take its backup. Registry restore is an easy solution because it ensures that the registry is able to enable a proper performance of the computer. Such registry restore steps involve accessing the registry, changing the value of the relevant key or even creating a new key so that the program functions correctly. Its important to take the back up of the registry when you attempt to carry out registry restore steps on your own. You can also any good registry cleaner software to prevent you from any broken PC problems.

Registry restore can be easily enabled by using simple commands in the cmd box. Registry restore process should never be attempted by a computer user without proper guidance. In the absense of computer help, you can rely on any good registry cleaner software that helps you clean all the un-necessary files from the registry on a single click.

How Laser Printers work


Laser printers, which are one of the most popular printers used today. It uses the technology implemented in photocopiers to print the pages. Laser invented way back in 1969 at Xerox.

The key component of the laser printer is the revolving drum which is also called photoreceptor. This selenium coated drum is made of the highly photoconductive material. Initially is given the total positive charge and rolled in toner. After this, the toner is transferred to the page, fused with heat and pressure and it is then that the image is printed on the page.

After printing the page is passed on to the pair of heated rollers, this is done to melt the loose toner powder on the paper and henceforth the fuser rolls the paper and the paper comes out on the tray.

The basic difference between the inkjet and the laser printer is that inkjet uses the wet ink to print the characters on a page whereas laser printer uses the dry powdered substance, so the print of inkjet printer is vulnerable to smudging but this is not the case with the print of laser printer.

More importantly the cost per page in the laser printer is quite less as compared to the inkjet printer. So if a user has loads of pages to print daily and of good quality it would be advisable for him/her to use the laser printer. Often we can get the inkjet printer at a relatively cheaper price than laser printer but the cost of re-filling the cartridge overshoots the actual cost of an inkjet printer. So, the costs of operating an inkjet printer are much high after its purchase.

Resolution or the quality of the laser printer depends on the DPI or the Dots Inch printed on the paper. Dpi in laser printer can vary from 300 dpi in low end models to 1200 in the top end models. Colored laser printers can be eight to ten times more expensive than the monochrome laser printers.

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How Inkjet Printers works

Inkjet printers are the most commonly used printers today. They operate by spraying droplets of ink on the paper which form the characters or the illustrations on the paper. Inkjet printers became popular in mid 1990’s and since then have replaced dot matrix printers due to their better print quality and faster print rate.

Most inkjet printers now have USB ( Universal Serial Bus) port to connect to the PC and laptop but many inkjet printers still use parallel ports to connect to the CPU.

Components/Architecture

The print head in the Inkjet printers consists of the nozzles or small holes through which the ink is sprayed on the paper. There are two different method/technologies, which are used by inkjet printer: thermal bubble and print piezoelectric.

There are separate cartridges used by the inkjet printers for black and color printing. Some cartridges itself contain the print heads.

While printing, the cartridge moves horizontally back and forth on the paper and the stepper motor facilitates this movement.

There is a stabilizer attached to the motor to control its movement There is also a belt in side the printer which attaches the motor and the print head together.

While printing, we keep the paper on the feeder tray and the paper is pulled in by the rollers and then dispensed out after the printing.

Types of Inkjet Printer

In inkjet printers, which employ thermal method to print, there is a heater which when receives the current is heated and then drives the ink out of the nozzle. The ink bubble formed due to this tension forces more ink out of the cartridge.

In piezoelectric based printers, piezoelectric material, crystals attached to the nozzles force the ink out which then print the pattern on the paper. This method has been patented by Epson. Piezoelectric based inkjet printers give better quality of images.

Though inkjet printers give better quality of printing but, if one needs to print many documents daily then the cost of printing may escalate due to limited number of pages which each cartridge can print. Depending upon the manufacturer, cartridge may print 300-600 pages varying on the usage and type. So, its up to a user which kind of printer does he opts for. Although ink jet printers have low initial costs, their print rate per page is high.

How Dot Matrix Printers work


Dot Matrix printers also called impact printers print the characters by striking the combinations of pins on the print ribbon; the ribbon in turn strikes the paper which is placed against the drum and at the point of the impact characters gets printed on the paper.

Dot matrix printers were extensively used during 1970’s and 1980’s, though these printers created lot of noise and were slow to print but they were extremely popular on account of less cost price per print page. Gradually dot matrix printers were replaced in most places by inkjet printers which were more efficient than the former due to less noise, fast printing and more importantly better print quality. But still the dot matrix printers are brought to use at many places where the more pages are needed to print and quality is not much of a consideration e.g. like cash registers or in places like banks or offices where large amount of data logs are to printed.

Since the characters are printed when the pins strike the ribbon, the number of pins can be said to be directly proportional to the print quality. Earlier dot matrix printers used to have nine pins but the print quality wasn’t that great, then the companies started manufacturing printers with 18 or 24 print heads. 24 head printer used to print quickly and better quality and graphics. Some of these printers even had magnet print heads which were faster and with better quality. The speed of dot matrix printers can vary from 50 to 500 cps.

Though some companies like Apple Inc. introduced colored dot matrix printers but they never really gained wide spread acceptance because of poor print quality. In colored dot matrix printers there are three or more ribbons of different colors and when we type anything the combination is printed by aligning these ribbons and generating the desired pattern. But the colored ribbons sometimes used to overlap black colored ribbons and one would get distorted pictures or characters.

Dot matrix printers like any other impact printer can be used to print carbon copies. These printers are less common today and as mentioned have been more or less replaced by inkjet and laser printers. The latter kinds of printers especially give better print quality and at a much faster rate.

History and functioning of Optical mouse


An optical mouse uses a photodiode and a light-emitting diode, which help in mouse movement detection. This mouse can be used on any surface (rough or smooth) and results to speedy and accurate processing.

You can easily connect this mouse to your computers. It uses three kinds of interfaces to transmit data that includes:

RS-232C serial port: Through a thin electrical cord of a 9 pin connector, it will connect the mouse to the PC.

PS/2 port: With a thin electrical cord of 6 pin connector, mouse will be attached with your computer.

USB interface: With a USB connector, several different types of mice can be connected to your system. It includes advantages like plug-and-play. Also, it can be attached in front or on the back of your computer case.

Microsoft

Older Version Of Optical Computer Mouse

In 1980, first demonstration was shown on “Optical Mice” by two independent inventors. It arrived in two different varieties:
  • The first one was invented by Steve Kirsche of Mouse Systems Corporation and MIT. It uses a four-quadrant infrared sensor and an infrared LED for detecting grid lines printed on a special metallic surface with infrared absorbing ink. In the CPU of the mouse, predictive algorithms calculate the direction and speed of the mouse over the grid.
  • Another invention was sold by Xerox and is invented by Richard F. Lyon. It tracked the motion of light dots in a dark field of a mouse pad or printed paper by using a 16-pixel visible-light image sensor with integrated motion detection on the same chip.
Different behaviors have been observed for both types of mice. The mouse invented by Kirsch used an x-y coordinate system embedded in the pad, and when the pad was rotating, it would not work correctly, whereas, the x-y coordinate system is used by the Lyon mouse that works similar as mechanical mice do.

Advanced Optical Mice

An optoelectronic sensor is used for the working of modern optical mouse. It helps to capture clear images of the surface on which the mouse moves. With the advancement in technology and introduction of cost-effective computing power, a powerful image-processing chip is embedded in the mouse itself. Thus, it has eradicated the need to use a special mouse pad for the curser movements and the mouse is now compatible with a wide variety of surfaces.

The “Microsoft IntelliMouse” is one of the most successful optical computer mouse developed in 2001. It comprises of Hewlett-Packard technology that can work on almost any surface and is more advanced.

Moving further, digital image correlation is a modern optical computer technology, which is introduced by the defense industry for tracking military targets. Moreover, image sensor is also used by optical mice to capture natural textures like cloth, mouse pad, wood and Formica. With a light emitting diode, these surfaces will lit up at a grazing angle

Working Of Optical Mice

Optical mouse captures two images of the same object that are slightly offset from each other. It makes them transparent by placing them on a light table and until the pictures line up, slides one across the other. Thus, the offset between the pictures is shown by the amount that the edges of one photograph project against the other.

Thousand or more repeated pictures can be clicked by this mouse per second. Based on the mouse’s moving speed, every picture will be offset by the pixel’s fraction.

Various types of mouse

Mechanical Mouse / Ball Mouse

Mouse is a hardware device that controls the activities of pointer or cursor on computer monitor. When we elaborate the term “mechanical mouse”, it implies a device integrated with an internal metal or rubber ball, which can spin in all directions (left, right, up and down). Thus, the display cursor moves as the mouse detects the direction.

History Of Ball Mouse

In 1972, Bill English (builder of Engelbart's original mouse) invented the ball mouse, while working for Xerox PARC. In this, a single mouse was replaced by the external wheels, which could roll in any direction. This hardware tool was a part of Xerox Alto computer. On the way to light sensors, perpendicular chopper wheels were inbuilt in the mouse’s body chopped beams of light.

A mechanical mouse includes an inbuilt ball and wheel mice for providing reliable grip to mouse movement. They were manufactured by Jack Hawley (who worked as the Mouse House in Berkeley, California) in 1975

Throughout the 1980s and 90s, the usage of ball mouse became predominant as it resembled a reversed track ball. Thus, the modern technique of using keyboard and mouse alongside was settled by the Xerox PARC group.

In 1990s, Jack Hawley invented another mouse with two wheels rotating at off axes.

Later on, Keytronic produced the modern computer mice at EPFL, which was designed with three buttons and a single hard rubber mouseball.

How Mechanical Mouse Works?

  • A mechanical mouse incorporates an internal ball that comes in contact with the surface on which the mouse has been placed.
  • The ball automatically rotates, when a user moves the mouse on the surface or desktop.
  • Two wheels are used for detecting the rolling. Both the wheels are placed at 90 degree angles from each other for detecting mouse movements and its direction.
  • Here one wheel can detect up and down movements, whereas, other is used for left and right movements.
  • Furthermore, the guide wheel (third wheel) that comes loaded with spring pushes the ball against the two sensor wheels for its functioning.

History and types of Laser mouse


A laser mouse, which is created with a laser beam (invisible) instead of traditional trackballs and LED lights, is a hardware device for PCs. These mice are considered as effective, sensitive and accurate devices as they support better tracking ability. With its user-friendly interface, this mouse is used by those users, who perform highly skilled jobs. One of the positive outcomes of this mouse is its energy efficient component that consumes lesser electricity when in use.

Mouse

History Of Laser Mouse

Earlier, laser mouse was known as optical mouse, and has gained massive recognition in the late 1990s. Since those years, optical mice became chief preferences of users and as a result, one can rarely find a ball mouse today. Moreover, wireless and cordless feature was also added in optical mouse.

In 1998, a laser mouse was presented by Sun Microsystems with their Sun SPARCstation servers and workstations.

In 2004, Logitech introduced first laser mouse as “Logitech MX 1000”.

With the enhancement of optical mouse to laser mouse, a small infrared laser is being used in the technology instead of an LED. It has drastically raised the image resolution captured by the mouse. With the use of navigation, laser facilitates approximately 20 times more surface tracking control to the surface.

Later in August 2009, a newest mouse was introduced with two lasers. It was developed by Logitech itself to track better on glossy and glass surfaces.

Possessing an optical sensor system, the ray produced by the laser mouse travels with the user's hand. This mouse can easily reflect from any surface without even using mouse pad.


Some of the updated versions of a laser mouse are:

  • Optical Laser Mouse
  • Corded Laser Mouse
  • Bluetooth Laser Mouse
  • Wireless Laser Mouse
  • Cordless Laser Mouse

Light Emitting Diode (LED) Technology

Light Emitting Diode (LED) Technology

These days, LED computer monitors are easily available for all users. LED monitors stands for Light emitted diode that is created in thin and flat designs. It is considered as a semiconductor light source, which is used in numerous devices as indicator lamps. In 1962, LED was initiated as an electronic component that emanated red light of low-intensity. However, contemporary versions are enhanced with ultraviolet, infrared and visible wavelengths that have high intensities. When a light-emanating diode(LED) is frontward partial, electrons are merged again with its holes and hence energy (photons) is released.

History of Light Emitted Diode

In 1927, creation of LED was reported by the Russian scientist Oleg Vladimirovich Losev. His research was initially circulated in German, British and Russian scientific Journals, but for several decades, this discovery was not used practically.

In 1955, infrared emission was reported by the Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductor alloys like silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys and indium phosphide (InP).

Later on, in 1962, Nick Holonyak Jr. developed visible-spectrum LED (red) as a first practical experiment and thus, Holonyak was considered as the "father of the LED".

In 1972, first yellow LED was invented by M.George Craford that has enhanced the brightness of red-orange and red LEDs.

Use of LED

LEDs were commercially used as a surrogate for neon indicator and incandescent lamps, in laboratory, electronics test equipment and in seven-segment displays etc.

Advantages of LED

  • Lesser energy consumption
  • Improved robustness
  • Longer Lifetime
  • Compact size
  • Greater consistency and durability
  • Narrow bandwidth
  • Quicker switching

Disadvantages of LED

  • Quite expensive
  • Requires particular kind of heat and current management

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Computer - Get The Best Device


Nowadays, with the advent in technology, you can easily find futuristic and high tech LCD flat screen computers. The LCD computer has been described as Liquid Crystal Display, which is designed with flat and thin display. It is made up of a range of attractive colors or monochrome pixels array in front of a light source or reflector. In this regard, passive matrix and active matrix are used by color LCDs for producing colors.
  • Passive matrix: In recent time, passive matrix is considered as one of the most popular displays used in computers, which is available at reasonable rates. For graphical user interfaces, it usually provides good contrast and viewing angle. Additionally, it includes a grid of horizontal and vertical wires that will either block the light or let it through.
  • Active-matrix: It is an expensive technology that produces sharper color images. This technology is also known as TFT (thin film transistor), which is perfect for multimedia applications with video images. To control each pixel, it uses one to four transistors.
Apart from computer monitor, liquid crystal display is probably available in numerous other electronic devices such as microwave ovens, video players, gaming devices, calculators, digital clocks, laptops, watches and CD players etc.

Thus, it is recommended that before buying any of the newest LCD monitor, it is important to evaluate its various factors like resolution, spatial performance, viewing angle, color performance, brightness and contrast ratio.

History Of LCD flat screen monitor

1858 to 1927, Liquid crystalline nature of cholesterol extracted from carrots was discovered by Friedrich Reinitzer. On May 3, 1888, at the meeting of Vienna Chemical Society, F. Reinitzer published his findings.

Work on Fl├╝ssige Kristalle (Liquid Crystals) took place by Otto Lehmann, which was published in 1904.

First experiments of Liquid crystals confined to plates in thin layers by Charles Mauguin in 1911.

In 1922, structure and properties of liquid crystals and their classifications (smectics, nematics and cholesterics) were elaborated by Georges Friedel.

“The Liquid Crystal Light Valve” is the first practical application of the technology made by the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company in 1936.

In 1962, Dr George W. Gray introduced "Molecular Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals", the first major English language publication on the then emerging LCD technology.

Richard Williams of RCA originated liquid crystals including electro-optic characteristics in 1962.

In 1964, the switching of colors by field-induced realignment of dichroic dyes in a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal was observed by George H. Heilmeier, while working on the effect discovered by Williams in the RCA laboratories. Due to some practical problems with new electro-optical effect, Heilmerier continued working on same project and finally, the first operational liquid crystal display based on the dynamic scattering mode (DSM) was achieved. Consequently, in the National Inventors Hall of Fame, George H. Heilmeier was credited for the induction of LCD.

In late 1960s, innovatory work on liquid crystals was undertaken by the UK's Royal Radar Establishment at Malvern, England.

Further, on December 4, 1970, Hoffman-LaRoche in Switzerland with Wolfgang Helfrich and Martin Schadt filed for copyright of the twisted nematic field effect in liquid crystals. In the same year, Roche and Japanese electronics industry was licensed for wrist watches manufactured by Brown, Boveri & Cie and soon produced the first digital quartz wristwatches with TN-LCDs.

Westinghouse in Pittsburgh (US) produced first active-matrix liquid crystal display panel in 1972.

The optical patterning technique with multi-domain was developed by Samsung in 1996.

Later on, in 1997, the first LCD was produced with acceptable visual quality for TV application by Hitachi with revived In-Plane-Switching (IPS) technology.

In 2007, the sales of CRT units were surpassed by LCD for the first time. In 2008, almost 200 million TVs were forecasted to ship globally.


Working Of LCD flat screen monitor

LCD monitors contain two display controls including:
  • Electrics of the pixels
  • Light source
Here, the signal comes in and the video controller is decoded, which is understood by a display controller on the monitor itself.

A matrix of pixels is used to make image on a TFT. It includes simple native resolution of the monitor. For a 17" monitor, the specifications for a matrix are 1280 pixels (horizontally) and 1024 pixels (vertically).

Three sub-pixels of RGB phosphors (red/green/blue) are used for making each pixel. Groups of liquid crystal molecules are essential for subpixels, which are mashed between two polarizing filters (exactly opposite of each other) and hovered between transparent electrodes.

The filter effectively whites it out; as the light from the light source comes in behind the first filter (the filter will polarize light back to back, when it passes through liquid crystal without any contact with it).

The way through which light passes is changed and twisted, when the current to liquid crystals is applied by electrodes. Thus, altering its polarization, the correct color is represented to the viewer through second polarizing filter.

Here, cold cathode is considered as the backlight. The optimum brightness and clarity depends on the display and cathode.

  • A single cathode at the top
  • One at the top and one at the bottom
  • Two at the top and two at the bottom
A layer of plastic is used to diffuse the cathodes that you might find installed on a flashgun diffuser for photography.
  • Wide screen display
  • Touch screen
  • Compact and portable
  • Reliable
  • Thinner and lighter
  • Consumes less power when in use
  • Astonishing picture quality
  • Black, silver or beige LCD
  • Flat screen that will not cover much space

Sizes Of LCD computer

LCD monitors are availability in various panels like 15 inches or less, 17 inches, 19 inches, 20 inches, 21 inches, 22 inches, 23 inches or larger and so on.

hin Film Transistor (TFT) Technology


Today, with the growing progression in technology, plenty of newest and innovative applications have hit the markets. If you are looking for a device that can provide you excellent experience for working on a computer then you can opt for the TFT monitor. TFT is a thin film transistor, which delivers enhanced picture quality. Once you get the TFT computers, you can easily access multiple applications like video editing, games and many more. Apart from computer monitor, this latest TFT technology is used in lots of devices like mobile phones, television, handheld video game system, projectors, personal digital assistants and navigation system etc.

Types Of flat screen OLED monitors
Wide variety of semiconductor materials like silicon, cadmium selenide, metal oxides (Zinc Oxide) and organic materials are used to make a TFT flat screen monitor. Moreover, to create transparent TFT devices, transparent electrodes and transparent semiconductors are used.

Low temperature is required for completing deposition process as the substance cannot resist the high annealing temperature.

Advantages Of TFT Flat Screen Monitors
  • Available at reasonable rates
  • Elegant looks
  • Adjustment options
  • High on resolution
  • Smaller in size
  • Wide screen viewing
  • Less strain on the eyes
  • Thin and occupy less space
  • Less power consuming
  • Excellent performance
Disadvantages Of TFT Monitors
  • Fixed native resolution
  • Colour Rendition
  • Bad viewing angle
Size Of TFT
The increasing usage of TFT screen has lead to several enhancements. Now, flat screen TFT monitors are available in varied sizes such as 15 inches, 17 inches and 19 inches. You can choose any of the monitor sizes as per your requirements.

Thus, these smart and reliable TFT computers will enhance your working capability and provide you a tremendous viewing experience.

Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)


An Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) is a futuristic technology, which represents great combination of thin, proficient and bright display. OLED monitors are made up of LED (light emitting diode) in which light is emitted in response to an electric current through film of organic compounds i.e. emissive electroluminescent layer.

For the functioning of flat OLED monitors, no back light is required. Thus, the OLED monitors illustrate thinner and lighter deep levels. Likewise, in dark room where ambient light is low, a higher contrast ratio is achieved by OLED screen.

History of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

In early 1950s, A. Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Universit├ę, France observed electroluminescence in organic materials. High voltage alternating current was applied in air to acride orange, which is either dissolved in or deposited on cellphase or cellulose thin films.

An ohmic dark-injecting electrode contact to organic crystals was developed by Martin Pope and co-workers at New York University in 1960. Further they described the basis of charge injection in all modern OLED devices. On a anthracene crystals and pure single crystal of anthracene, pope group observed direct current electroluminescence under vacuum in 1963.

In 1965, for the first time, double injection recombination electroluminescence was produced in an electron injecting electrodes and anthracene single crystal using hole, the forerunner of modern double injection devices by W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider of the National Research Council in Canada.

A method of preparing electroluminescent cells using high voltage (500–1500 V) AC-driven (100–3000 Hz) electrically-insulated one millimetre thin layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground graphic powder, anthracene powder and tetracene was initiated in the same year by Dow Chemical researchers. Earlier, its performance was limited but, later on with the discovery and development of higher conductive polymers, it overcomes all its drawbacks.

At National Physical Laboratory (UK), Roger Partridge observed the Electroluminescence from polymer films and was published in 1983.
In 1987, Steven Van Slyke and Ching W. Tang reported the first diode device at Eastman Kodak. Further, in 1990 with J. H. Burroughes et al. at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge research into polymer electroluminescence was finished resulting a high efficiency green light-emitting polymer.

Working Of OLED Computers

Anode and cathode are two electrodes in which OLED is situated. OLED is composed of a layer of organic materials that are electrically conductive as an effect of delocalization of pi electrons. These materials are considered as an organic semiconductor as it comprises of conductive levels from insulators to conductors.

A single organic layer is available under the basic polymer OLEDs. Thus, to improve device efficiency, multiple OLEDS can be used with two or more layers. Along with this, a simple bilayer structure is included by many modern OLEDs, which incorporate an emissive layer and a conductive layer.

Across the OLED, a voltage is applied during operation, which results positive (anode) with respect to the cathode. With this process, HOMO (higher occupied molecule orbitals) is injected into the electron holes. Here the holes and the electrons bring towards each other through electrostatic forces to form an exciton (a bound state of the electron and hole). By emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region, the excited state can result to delay with relaxation of energy levels of the electron.

Depending on how the spins of the hole and electron have been combined, an exciton may either be in single state or a triple state. Thus, each singlet exciton forms the three triplet exciton. Limiting the internal efficiency and raising the timescale of the transition of fluorescent device, spin forbidden will be delayed from triple states (phosphorescence). So, improving the internal efficiency and attaining emission from both singlet and triplet state will facilitate intersystem crossing between both states with Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes, which make use of spin–orbit interactions.

Moreover, injection of holes into the HOMO level of the organic layer are promoted bu Indium tin oxide (anode material), which is transparent to visible light. Whereas, injection of electrons into the LUMO (lower unoccupied molecule orbitals) of the organic layer are used promoted by metals like calcium and barium (cathode). Capping of layer of aluminum is required to avoid degradation for which such metals are reactive.

The current that passes through the single carrier device is composed of only one type of charge carrier, so the recombination does not take place and light is not emitted.

Types Of flat screen OLED monitors
  • Passive Matrix (PMOLED): They are simple and economical to build but, are restricted to size, refresh rate and resources.
  • Active Matrix (AMOLED): A thin-film transistor backplane is required by active matric to switch each pixel on/off. It is difficult to create, expensive, can represent larger displays and is power efficient.
  • Transparent OLED: It includes only transparent components like substrate, cathode and anode, which can either be active or passive matrix. Light pass in both directions, when OLED display is turned on whereas, light pass up to 85 percent as transparent as their substrate, when turn off.
  • Top-emitting OLED: It has either opaque or reflective substrate, which is best suited to active-matrix.
  • White OLED: It produce bigger white light, which is more energy efficient and uniform. It consumes less energy and thus, replaces fluorescent lights used in home.
Components Of OLED
OLED is a thin and small semiconductor device that has two or three layers of organic material. Following parts are included in the OLED such as:
  • Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil)
  • Anode: when a current flows through the device, it automatically removes electrons.
  • Organic layer: It is made up of conducting layer (organic plastic molecules) and emissive layer (polymers).
  • Cathode: Electrons are injected, when current flows through device.
Advantages Of OLED Computer
  • Lighter, thinner and efficient
  • Enhanced image quality with superior brightness and contrast
  • Power consuming
  • Superior viewing angles
  • Flexible and transparent
Disadvantages Of OLED Flat Screen Monitor
  • Screen burn-in
  • Poor readability in bright ambient light such as outdoors
  • Organic materials of the displays can be damaged by water
  • Color balance issues

About Cathode Ray Tube Monitors


These days, one can find massive change in technological advancement. Still there are several people who prefer buying traditional gadgets. One such traditional device is the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors. These monitors illustrate magnificent picture quality and are available at reasonable prices. With the moving electron beam of cathode tube back and forth, CRT monitors automatically create images.

Furthermore, to enhance the sharpness of the monitor display and to obtain correct images on screen, you can use three ways to filter the electronic beam such as:

  • Shadow mask: It is a thin metal screen packed with small holes through which electron beam will pass at right intensity, focusing on CRT display. It will for sure create preferred images and colors on the display.
  • Aperture grill: It consists of tiny vertical wires, to light up the phosphor on the faceplate. With its flat faceplate it shows less distorted images on the display of the CRT.
  • Slot mask: A slot-mark tube is a combination of aperture grill and shadow-mask technologies that produce brightness through phosphor dots.
Most computers now available now come with the built in sound card which is coupled with the mother board and installed in the PCI slot. But if a use s not satisfied with the quality of the built in sound card then he can disable it and install his own separate external sound card if you want to perform major tasks like audio editing and audio mixing.

There are even USB sound card available which an be just plugged into the compute and brought to use

How cathode ray tube works

Working of cathode ray tube initiates by moving an electron beam back and forth across the back of the screen. As soon as beam passes across the screen, visible image is created. Thereby, inside the glass tube, phosphor dots lights up the active portion of the screen.

By drawing many such lines from top to the bottom of the screen, it creates a screen full of images which is achieved in three-color combinations including Red/Green/Blue, which is considered as RGB mode.

By drawing many such lines from top to the bottom of the screen, it creates a screen full of images which is achieved in three-color combinations including Red/Green/Blue, which is considered as RGB mode.

In this, the terms anode (positive) and cathode (negative) are used in electronics. Here a cathode ray tube is a heated filament in a vacuum, which is created inside a glass "tube". An electron gun will generate “ray” that pours off a heated cathode into the vacuum whereas, the anode attracts the electrons pouring off the cathode because of its positive characteristic. With the use of Phosphor, the screen is coated, which is considered as an organic material that glows when struck by the electron beam.


History Of CRT computer
The German physicist Ferdinand Braun invented the earliest version of the CRT in 1897, which is further recognized as the Braun tube. It is a great modification of the Crookes tube and a phosphor-coated screen that is known as a cold-cathode diode.
Later on in 1907, an experimental video signal was used to form a picture in CRT. For the first time, CRT technology left a remarkable impact and it managed to display simple geometric shapes onto the screen. In 1922, with the use of hot cathode by Harry Weiner Weinhart and John B. Johnson, CRT monitor became a commercial product.

Pros And Cons Of Cathode Ray Tube Monitor
CRT monitors comprise of several advantages that include finest image quality, better contrast or brightness ratios, near zero color that will let you experience excellent viewing angle, easily scaling to various resolutions and availability at pocket soothing rates.
Apart from these advantages, some drawbacks of CRT include large size and weight, geometric distortion caused by variable beam travel distances and huge electricity consumption that generates immense heat while working.

Pros And Cons Of Cathode Ray Tube Monitor
If you are looking forward to buy a CRT computer monitor, it is essential to decide, how much resolution you require for your monitor. The size of monitor depends on resolution thus, higher the resolution; the bigger the monitor required. These days, one can easily avail the CRT monitor in varied sizes including 14", 15", 17" and 21" etc. The monitor resolution is measured in pixels and different monitors have different resolution such as
  • VGA: 640 x 480 pixels
  • SVGA: 800 x 600 pixels and
  • XGA: 1024 x 768, 1280 x 1024, 1600 x 1200, 1600 x 1280 and 1800 x 1440 pixels

How Sound Card works


Sound card is an integral component of the computer. Sound card enables us to hear the sound by working on the audio files. According to the format of the audio files sound card alters or manipulates it. Sound card available nowadays support almost all formats of audio files like .mp3, .mp4, .wav and many more. There is interface mostly on the back of the PCs where input and the output ports are located. Output is available through the speakers or the headphones. Sound card is also known as audio or sound adapter.

There is a separate port called the microphone port which allows the sound to be recorded with help of microphone you can record audio of any length and later convert to any convenient format.

Sound card also enable you to attach external audio player or any other external recording device. You may need to change the settings to make it compatible with your sound card.

There are two fundamental methods used to convert the digital files into the analog files which we can hear:
  • FM Synthesis or frequency modulation synthesis imitates the sound of various musical instruments
  • Wavetable Synthesis produces more accurate and clear sound and relies and is based on the actual recording of the instruments or musical devices
Most computers now available now come with the built in sound card which is coupled with the mother board and installed in the PCI slot. But if a use s not satisfied with the quality of the built in sound card then he can disable it and install his own separate external sound card if you want to perform major tasks like audio editing and audio mixing.

There are even USB sound card available which an be just plugged into the compute and brought to use

Pen Drive


Introduction
Pen Drive also referred as USB flash drive is a portable device which allows user to transfer data (text, images, videos etc) to and from computer quickly. Users can easily read and write the data on the Pen Drive by plugging it into the USB port on the computer. Pen Drives are quite compact and can fit easily into the pocket; they run without battery and draw power from the USB connection itself. Both Floppy disks and CDs are now being gradually replaced by Pen Drive as a preferred means of data storage. Its because latter offers mass data transfer and storage capability and at a much faster rate.

Storage capacity of the Pen Drive can vary from few megabytes to over 100 GB. Nowadays even external hard drives are available in the market with huge storage capacity, which like Pen Drive can be connected to a USB port on the computer.

Architecture
Pen drive consist of an electronic circuit board and a USB connector connects the drive to the computer. Pen Drive also known as a Flash memory is an example of NAND style storage device. It is a memory chip which holds the data. Data output is controlled by Crystal oscillator which produces 12 MHz clock signal in the device.

Most Pen Drives are covered with plastic, metal or rubber casing for insulation.

Advantages
Pen Drives are robust and scratch free thus ensuring maximum security for your data as compared to other traditional means of data storage. Many available PC software suites permit the launch of an operating system from the bootable pen drive. Moreover companies selling Pen Drives nowadays also couple it with other devices like MP3 music player, LED’s or Swiss Knife etc.

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)


Hard disk drive or HDD is the basic component of any computer. Hard disk is in fact the data bank where all the information, programs and files are stored. Hard disk contains a round rotating metal disk called platter which is like a mirror in appearance and stores the data with magnetic recording medium. This magnetic recording medium stores the data via read/write head on the platters. These platters are quite delicate and should not be tampered with because even small damage can result in complete loss of data.

Unlike RAM (Random Access Memory) hard disk is classified as non-volatile storage memory as it does not requite continuous power supply to store the data.

Components and Working of the Hard Disk Drive

Read and write heads are attached to the end of the platter and as mentioned are responsible for reading and writing the data on the hard disk.

These read and write heads are attached to the arm called actuator which moves over the platter of the hard-disk. The read and write head never actually touches the platter but just brushes past it with constant air cushion between both of them.

Platter rotates with the speed of over 5000 RPM in the hard disk. A component called spindle is actually responsible for rotating the hard-disk with such speed. The higher the RPM (rotations per minute) faster the data can be read/written on the hard-disk and thus it gives a much better performance.

Hard disk drives available in market come with varying storage capabilities ranging from few megabytes to hundreds of gigabytes. Previously computers used to have a hard drive with just few MB but nowadays most of the computers have over 50 GB of hard-disk space.

All the components mentioned like actuator, spindle platter etc. are contained in the unit called hard disk assembly (HDA). Logic board which controls the movements of these components is located outside HDA and facilitates the inward/outward movement of data.
Internal architecture of  a Hard Disk Drive

Compact Disk


Compact Disk or CD as it is commonly known is an optical disk used to store data and information. Made of a polycarbonate material and as light as 20 grams, CD has a standard radius of 6 centimeters. Philips and Sony were one of the first manufacturers of the CD in mid 1970’s, by the end of 1980’s CD were becoming highly popular and became as preferred means of data storage.

Any form of data be it music files, text files, graphics, movies etc can be stored on the compact disk. A standard CD has about 700-800 MB (megabytes) of data storage capacity. The data in CD is stored in the divisions called pits which are embedded in the spiral tracks over the polycarbonate layer.

This polycarbonate layer is in turn covered by reflective layer (usually aluminum) and on top of that is added another layer of acrylic is added for protection. Labels at last are etched on the acrylic layer.

CD-ROM player is a device which is used to read and write the CDs. The two types of CDs are CD-R and CD-RW. CD-R is a cheaper because the data once written on this can not be erased and stays there. Whereas CD-RW (read/write) is a re-recordable CD where you can re-write the data on the CD as an when you require. CD-RW is tad expensive than CD-R.

CD is a sensitive device which is quite vulnerable to dust and scratches. During recent years use of CD has dropped considerably because people prefer to the pen drives or the USB which much more portable and can hold large amount of data.

A Compact Disk

Motherboard


CPU or Central Processing Unit is the main functional unit of the computer. CPU performs all the functions and carries out all tasks whether major or minor on the computer; in short CPU is rightly called the ‘Brain’ of the computer.

Motherboard contains chipset which performs the most basic functions. The chipset consists of the BIOS (Basic Input Output System) and also houses the real time clock which maintains the system’s time. It is the BIOS mounted on the motherboard which is one of the main features which determines the performance of your PC.

To connect external devices motherboard has PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) where a user can attach devices like network card, sound card etc.

The circuit of the motherboard provides all the important connections for a system to perform effectively specifically in the case of CPU. Capability of the motherboard decides the amount of RAM and CPU it supports. Some motherboards might be suitable for a 32-bit processor and may not be able to fulfill the requirements of a higher processor. Similarly in the case of RAM make sure while buying the motherboard that if your demand from the PC increases in future then you can increase the RAM of your system at will and your motherboard supports it.

BIOS as already stated, is the one of the key components mounted on the motherboard is responsible for maintaining the operating system, the power supply and the hard disk.

Motherboard

What is CPU (Central Processing Unit)


CPU or Central Processing Unit is the main functional unit of the computer. CPU performs all the functions and carries out all tasks whether major or minor on the computer; in short CPU is rightly called the ‘Brain’ of the computer.

When the CPU’s were developed in 1960’s they were large machines almost the size of an average room and were quite expensive, but gradually whole machinery was replaced by Integrated circuits (IC’s) and this reduced the size of the CPU to much compact one. Tthe function of the CPU is to execute the assigned task or series of instructions given to it. Most CPU adheres to Von Neumann architecture and carries out the task in four steps
  • Fetch
  • Decode
  • Execute
  • Write back
Fetch – During this step CPU retrieves the instruction from the software program memory. Program counter determines the location in the program memory.

Decode – Once the CPU fetches the instruction next step would be to decode the instruction. During decoding of the instruction, it is arranged and broken down so that it can be easily executed.

Execution –After the information gained from the decoding execution is performed, required memory is allocated for data to perform e.g. if the command for print is given then first the instruction reaches the CPU which then directs the printer to print a page.

Write Back – When the execution step is performed then after that CPU writes back the results onto the main memory or on to the internal CPU register.

Performance of the CPU is measured in terms of Instructions per second (IPS) it can execute. Simply put, we can calculate how many instructions CPU can carry out in a given amount of time to measure its capability Dual core processors are twice as powerful as single processors because they are able to carry out tasks at twice the speed of the latter.

Components of CPU

  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) – As the name suggests this unit carries out all the arithmetic (mathematical) and logical (comparison) operations. This unit also contains the electronic circuitry.
  • Control Unit – It coordinates the activities of other units and signals to carry out instructions stored in the memory.
  • Registers – This could be defined as small temporary storage areas or memory with high speed and they are controlled by control unit. There are various registers with each register performing specific task.

Various registers in the CPU are:

  • Accumulators – They hold the data after calculations are carried out
  • Address Registers - This stores data which is to be used by programs to carry out the instructions
  • Status Register – This register maintains the status of the last operation executed by the CPU
Block Diagram of CPU