Saturday, September 27, 2014

What is a Router and how it works

Router, which facilitates the transfer of data in the form of packets, is a device connecting two or more networks. Routers can be used to send the data either within the same network or to different networks.

The data packets which are sent over a network are directed on basis of their address. Each packet contains a header which can be used to determine the destination address and the source.

When the packet is sent over the network it is transferred from one network to other. When internet is installed in homes, a router routes the information that is received through your broadband Internet via modem, then decodes it and finally delivers it to your desktop.

When the packet arrives at the router, information contained in its header is scrutinized and based on this scrutiny the packet is forwarded to its destination. Routers also use protocols like ICMP (Internet Message control Protocol) to exchange information and try to figure out best possible route for information packet transfer in terms of cost and time.

Routers can even be used at home if a user wants to connect more than one computer with a single network (Internet connection).

Types of Router:

  • Cable Router – Cable routers are commonly used where a user has subscribed to high-speed cable Internet. While the modem is plugged into the wall socket from which the user also receives the cable TV signal, cable router is connected to the modem, which sends the signal to home computers.
  • Wireless Router – A wireless router can be used to connect to Internet or a personal network. Nowadays many companies manufacturing router provide it with built in devices thus eliminating the needs for extra devices. Routers which use the Wi-Fi methodology also connect with other wireless devices like NIC (Network Interface cards) and wireless repeaters.
  • Multicast Router – Multicast routers are brought to use when it is desired that multiple users should receive a single data packet. Depending upon number of users and the bandwidth available, multicast routers, either uses dense mode routing or sparse mode routing. Both the networks make use of multicast datagram’s which are sent to the routers and hence include a larger number of receivers over sources.

Friday, June 24, 2011

What is a Wi-Fi Router and how Wi-Fi works

Wi-Fi is a wireless networking protocol, where in the devices communicate without the use of cables or cords. The name Wi-Fi is often quoted as acronym for wireless fidelity but is derived from the word Hi-Fi( High Fidelity). The latter was the term coined by audiophiles to refer to all kinds of expensive audio equipments that produced the least amount of distortion in sounds.

Wi-Fi works using radio frequency technology. Nowadays most of the devices come with built in Wi-Fi devices like laptop, mobile phones etc. In absence of the built-in device user could use a Wi-Fi adapter.

Depending on the network Wi-Fi could be termed as closed network or an open network. For a closed network, a user requires certain specifications like password and user details to access the network. Area covered under Wi-Fi is termed as wireless hotspot.

How Wi-Fi works?

As previously mentioned Wi-Fi works using radio waves which spreads the Wi-Fi Internet network. These signals are spread via radio waves which are picked up by the Wi-Fi devices. If your laptop or the computer doesn’t have built in Wi-Fi device then you can attach Wi-Fi adapter to your system. Wi-Fi adapter in the computer converts the data into radio signal and then broadcasts it using attached antennae. When the router picks up and decodes it then internet connection is established which can be accessed with your device.

To access the Internet a Wi-Fi device needs to be within the given range which is about 300-600 feet or within the wireless hotspot.

If the any two product are termed as “Wi-Fi certified” then these products can operate with each other and exchange regardless of the fact if they are from different manufacturers.

Wi-Fi operates at frequency of 2.4Ghz and many devices in the market nowadays support it like mobile phone, PDA and laptops,. .

Security Concerns

If not protected, Internet using Wi-Fi can be used in an unauthorized manner. The unauthorized users can exploit Intranet for their own use or for any malicious activity. It is better to implement security procedures like Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and other encryption techniques to prevent such unauthorized use.


Intranet is an internal private network usually employed by organizations which uses TCP/IP protocol for networking. Organizations generally use Intranet for their daily working, Intranet operates on LAN and the computers connected via Intranet can’t be accessed from outside.

Intranet works with almost Internet like functionality with private e-mail systems and message boards. Many advanced Intranet systems have websites, newsgroups, forums and large databases which are required for the company’s business. Intranet which resides behind firewall protects any unauthorized access.

If an organization wishes to give controlled access to someone outside it might use Extranet for that purpose. Extranet are the extension of the private networks for sharing limited resources with clients and other organizations.

For computers in an organization to be connected via Intranet, it is not at all necessary for them to be connected to the Internet.

Advantages of the Intranet

As mentioned before there are organizations around the world which use private Intranet as it helps them to enhance their productivity, as it allows the employees to access any information and communicate anytime.

Since the information is readily available it saves them lot of time. Intranet can also be linked to company’s management information system. The MIS systems inside the company are designed for simplification of the company’s accounting and resource management policies. These systems facilitate the flow of information to and from all the levels in the company.

Many departments in various organizations like human resources, sales, accounting etc use Intranet to coordinate work and various processes with other departments.